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Astronomy - Astrophysics - Cosmology - Chemical - Nuclear Physics - Physics - Quantum Physics - Biology & Homeopathy

15. Macrocosm telescopes picture butt arrow

16. Keck - LBT - ELT - EURO 50 - OWL - VLT - LSST - GLT - GTC - TMT picture butt arrow

17. Space telescopes picture butt arrow

18. MAGIC telescope picture butt arrow

19. Telescopes Planck & Herschel picture butt arrow

20. Radio telescopes picture butt arrow

21. The micro cosmos picture butt arrow

22. Scanning tunneling microscopes picture butt arrow

23. Nuclear power telescopes picture butt arrow

24. Superstrings picture butt arrow

25. PhD Higgs theory picture butt arrow

26. Dark mater picture butt arrow

27. CERN - LCH - ILC picture butt arrow

28. PhD R. Moessbauer picture butt arrow

29. Story of homeopathy picture butt arrow

30. PhD S. Hahnemann picture butt arrow

31. Manufacture of homeopathic medicines picture butt arrow

32. Korsakoff Manufacture  picture butt arrow

33. Science and homeopathy dissertations picture butt arrow

34. Books picture butt arrow

15. The  macrocosm telescopes picture butt arrow

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The current largest 8 meter telescope sees 10 million times further into the universe than the human eye 133,000,000,000,000,000,000,000. Trilliarden kilometers. 21 zeros

Overview of existing or planned optical telescopes to the size of the mirror

 William Herschel Telescope WHT      1×4,20 m   2.400 m   Spanien 1987

Discovery Channel Telescope DCT      1×4,20 m   2.365 m   USA   2010

Hale Telescope                       1×5,08 m   1.713 m   USA     1949

Large Zenith Telescope LZT            1×6,00 m            Kanada   2003

Big Telescope Altazimuthal BTA        1×6,00 m   2.070 m   Russland 1975

Multiple Mirror Telescope MMT         1×6,50 m   2.606 m   USA     2000

Magellan 10                           2×6,50 m   2.300 m   Chile    2000

Gemini North                          1×8,10 m   4.205 m   Hawaii   1999

Gemini South                         1×8,10 m   2.682 m   Chile     2001

Subaru NLT                           1×8,20 m   4.139 m   Hawaii   1998

Large Synoptic Survey Telescop LSST  1×8,40 m   2.682 m   Chile    2013

Large Binocular Telescope LBT         2×8,40 m2  3.267 m   USA    2006

Very Large Telescope VLT             4×8,20 m   2.635 m   Chile    1998

Keck                                 2×10,00 m  4.145 m   Hawaii  1996

Gran Telescopio Canarias GTC         1×10,40 m  2.426 m   Spanien 2007

Hobby-Eberly Telescope HET           1×11,10 m  1.980 m   USA    1999

Southern African Large Telescope SALT 1×11,10 m  1.760 m  Südafrika 2005

Thirty Meter Telescope TMT            1×30,00 m                     2010

European Extremely Large Telescope ELT  1×42,00 m                 2018

Overwhelmingly Large Telescope OWL  1×100,00 m                   2020

Depending on the frequency spectrum or wavelengths of the electromagnetic radiation, there are:

1st  X-ray telescopes Bild Button pfeil1a

2nd Optical telescopes - lens - Mirror Telescopes Bild Button pfeil1a

3rd  Infrared telescopes Bild Button pfeil1a

4th  Radio telescopes Bild Button pfeil1a

16. Keck picture butt arrow LBT picture butt arrow ELT picture butt arrow EURO 50 Bild Button pfeil1a OWL picture butt arrow VLT picture butt arrow LSST Bild Button pfeil1a GMT Bild Button pfeil1a GTC Bild Button pfeil1a TMT  Bild Button pfeil1a

The Gemini - telescopes in Hawaii and in Chile Bild Button pfeil1a The Subaru - Telescope in Hawaii Bild Button pfeil1a The Hobby - Eberly - Telescope in Texas, USA Bild Button pfeil1a Bild Button pfeil1a  The Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) in South Africa. Bild Button pfeil1a  The largest telescope mirror Gran Telescopio Canaris on La Palma, Spain - called GRANTECAN - GLT Bild Button pfeil1a

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University of Hawaii Bild Button pfeil1a  Aerial Tour of the Mauna Kea Observatories - website Bild Button pfeil1a Keck Observatory Bild Button pfeil1a PDF 36 sites Bild Button pfeil1a

Mauna Kea Telescopes  Optical / Infrared

UH 0.6m

UH 0.6-m educational telescope


University of Hawaii at Hilo


UH 2.2m

UH 2.2-m telescope


UH Institute for Astronomy



NASA Infrared Telescope Facility





Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope





United Kingdom Infrared Telescope


United Kingdom


Keck I

W. M. Keck Observatory


Caltech/University of  California


Keck II

W. M. Keck Observatory


Caltech/University of  California



Subaru Telescope





Gemini Northern Telescope


USA/UK/ Canada/Argentina / Australia/Brazil/Chile




Caltech Submillimeter Observatory





James Clerk Maxwell Telescope





Submillimeter Array


Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory/Taiwan




Very Long Baseline Array




videos Engineering connections - The Keck Observatory - Part 1-3 10:28  Bild Button pfeil1a 10:57  Bild Button pfeil1a 10:50 Bild Button pfeil1a

 The two KECK - Telescopes of the Manau Kea Observatory - Hawaii

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ESO operates the La Silla Paranal Observatory, providing some of the world's largest and most advanced observational facilities at three sites in Northern Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. Bild Button pfeil1a

VLT  - ESO Very Large Telescope Bild Button pfeil1a Video 5:14 Bild Button pfeil1a 4:14 Bild Button pfeil1a

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La Silla Paranal Observatory: The Paranal Facilities Bild Button pfeil1a Paranal :The biggest optical observatory of world 2:31 Bild Button pfeil1a

On Paranal ESO operates the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) with four 8.2-m telescopes (the Unit Telescopes or short UTs). Each UT provides one Cassegrain and two Nasmyth focus stations for facility instruments. One Nasmyth focus is available for visitor instruments. In addition each UT is equipped with a Coude focus station from which the light can be coherently combined in the interferometric focus. Bild Button pfeil1a

 ESO also operates four 1.8m Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs), that are used as an interferometric array (VISA). Currently, 11 instruments including 2 interferometric instruments are operational and offered for science observations. Soon, two survey telescopes shall be operated: the 4-m infrared VISTA, and the 2.5-m visible VST telescopes

The Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Cerro Paranal is ESO's premier site for observations in the visible and infrared light. All four unit telescopes of 8.2m diameter are individually in operation with a large collection of instruments. Bild Button pfeil1a Bild Button pfeil1a

ESO operates three major telescopes (3.6-m telescope, New Technology Telescope (NTT), 2.2-m Max-Planck - ESO telescope) at La Silla. They are equipped with state of the art instruments either built completely by ESO or by external consortia, with substantial contribution by ESO. Bild Button pfeil1a

 APEX, the A tacama P athfinder E xperiment, is a collaboration between Max Planck Institut for Radioastronomie (MPIfR) at 50%, Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) at 23%, and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) at 27% to construct and operate a modified ALMA prototype antenna as a single dish on the high altitude site of Llano Chajnantor. The telescope was supplied by VERTEX Antennentechnik, Duisburg, Germany. APEX has a suite of heterodyne spectrometers and wide-field bolometer cameras operating in most of the atmospheric windows from 0.2 to 1.4 mm.

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Observing with APEX will allow us to study warm and cold dust in starforming regions both in our own Milky Way and in distant galaxies in the young universe. High frequency spectral lines enable the exploration of the structure and chemistry of planetary atmospheres, dying stars, molecular clouds as well as inner regions of starburst galaxies. We will address issues from the vast scales of the structure of the Universe down to the physics and chemistry of comets. Bild Button pfeil1a Bild Button pfeil1a

LBT  Large Binocular Teloscope in Arizona USA, with two mirrors Bild Button pfeil1a video 4:25 Bild Button pfeil1a

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The double telescopic covers as much light as a 11.8 m mirror, it would be up to 2.5 million kilometers away, the light of a burning candle can be observed. The optical resolution of the LBT can use interferometry to that of a 22.8 - meter - levels are increased. With the help of interferometry is also the light from the central stars or less disappears, to which any planets directly visible - Nulling - interferometry

Large Synoptic Survey Telescope  LSST  - video 5:22 Bild Button pfeil1a 2:38 Bild Button pfeil1a Revolutionary LSST Project Rooted at the UA 4:52 Bild Button pfeil1a  Next: An Enormous Picture of the Universe 53:44 Bild Button pfeil1a

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In 2003, the LSST Corporation, a Non - Profrit - Society with the objective of a telescope for complete coverage of the sky to build and operate, was founded. The means of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, LSST data obtained should be fully public, and therefore every scientist and interested in astronomy will be made available. With a 8.40 meter primary mirror telescope is expected to be equipped in 2010, the first time in operation and in 2014 finally be completed. As the site was the summit of Cerro Pachón, a 2682 meter high mountain in the Chilean Andes elected.

Unlike previous large telescopes, which are mainly on the observation and exploration of individual, very distant objects and phenomena concentrate, the LSST pursues another goal: using the regular, expected within three days past full digital map of the sky should be relatively quickly firmament on moving objects such as asteroids, trans-objects from the Kuiper - belt or cloud of Oortschen and Novae and supernovae are covered. In addition, the images depicted on the stars, distant galaxies and other structures of the universe in the form of a 3D - Atlas of the Universe as a basis for a comprehensive analysis of the distribution of mass in the universe and hence the search for dark matter and gravitational lensing serve..

Giant Magellan Telescope GMT - PDF 31 sites Bild Button pfeil1a Bild Button pfeil1a image galery Bild Button pfeil1a video 0:56 Bild Button pfeil1a

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The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) the product of more than a century of astronomical research and telescope-building by some of the world’s leading research institutions - will open a new window on the universe for the 21st century. Scheduled for completion around 2018, the GMT will have the resolving power of a 24.5-meter (80 foot) primary mirror - far larger than any other telescope ever built. It will answer many of the questions at the forefront of astrophysics today and will pose new and unanticipated riddles for future generations of astronomers.

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GMT Partner Institutions

 Carnegie Institution for Science  The University of Texas at Austin  Harvard University  The Australian National University  Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory  University of Arizona  Texas A&M University  Astronomy Australia Ltd.  Texas A&M University   Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

The GMT will produce images up to 10 times sharper than the Hubble Space Telescope.

GRANTECAN the largest reflecting telescope in the world GTC / video 8:03 Bild Button pfeil1a 2:02 Bild Button pfeil1a

On 24 July 2009 was supported by the Spanish royal couple, on the island of La Palma, the largest in the world reflecting telescope inaugurated. Astronomers are drawn to it because of the clear nights. The group of islands in the Atlantic is regarded worldwide as one of the most ideal locations to observe the universe. The heart of this "galaxy hunter is a mirror diameter of 10.4 meters and a usable area of just 82 square meters. The mirror consists of 36 hexagonal segments, which together weigh 18 tons.

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 For crystal - clear images should, inter alia, provide adaptive optics. It is like 200 times per second, the distortion of light on its path through the atmosphere. The effect can be used with a coin that is thrown into a swimming pool will illustrate: As long as the water moves, it is hard to see, but is equally visible when the water stopped. He is about six square meters bigger than the other giant telescopes - in astronomy are the worlds. His vision of human pupil is 400,000,000 and it is so precise that one on the moon could be seen a plate. The telescope weighs 400 tons and is 45 meters high. This represents a 14-floor skyscraper.

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Thirty Meter Telescope TMT Bild Button pfeil1a video 3:28 Bild Button pfeil1a Images: Photo-Illustrations 78 - pictures Bild Button pfeil1a The Detailed Science Case / PDF 100 sites Bild Button pfeil1a

The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) is a reflecting telescope with a planned 30 - meter diameter mirror. The primary mirror will consist of 492 segments with a diameter of 1.4 meters can be produced. The telescope is designed for observations in the wavelength range from 0.31 to 28 micrometers conceived. It comes with an adaptive optics, and at wavelengths greater than 0.8 microns so that a ten-fold higher resolution than the Hubble Space Telescope reach. The preferred location is the Mauna Kea mountain in Hawaii. The scientific operations will be 2018.

TMT Fast Facts

  * 30 meter, f1 mirror

  * 492, 1.45 meter mirror segments

  * 20 arcminute field of view

1st Light Instruments

  * Wide-field Optical Spectrometer and Imager (WFOS)

  * Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph and Imager for AO corrected images (IRIS)

  * AO at 1st Light: 0.8 Strehl at 2µ, 0.007” resolution @ 1µ, 30” field of view

  * Near-infrared multislit spectrograph and imager for AO corrected images over a 2’ field (IRMS)

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The biggest planned for 2018 eye in the universe  ELT & Euro 50 - video 3:41 Bild Button pfeil1a 3:15 Bild Button pfeil1a

The European Extremely Large Telescope, ELT, is the proposal by the European Southern Observatory ESO for a new optical telescope of the next generation. There will be a primary mirror with 42 meters in diameter, composed of 906 hexagonal mirror elements assembled to be. It is expected that the construction in the year 2018 will be completed. It represents a technological step to the also planned Overwhelmingly Large Telescope, OWL with a 100 meter primary mirror and the Euro 50 with a 50 meter primary mirror With a mirror diameter of about 42 meters, it will be the largest telescope in the world.

bild teleskop ELT vergleich vlt2 bild teleskop ELT graphik ELT Bild Button pfeil1a

Euro 50 - a 50 meter mirror / PDF 7 sites Bild Button pfeil1a PDF 8 sites Bild Button pfeil1a

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 OWL - the giant - 100 m mirror Bild Button pfeil1a Bild Button pfeil1a video 3:17 Bild Button pfeil1a

The planning goes into even more unimaginable dimensions - with a 100-meter mirror of the ESO Teloskop, the Overwhelmingly Large Telescope, OWL

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 It already exists in your computer. The giant telescope, a forty times better resolution and 1600 times higher sensitivity than the Hubble Space Telescope have. The sharp eye could be a giant man on the moon recognize. The 100-meter mirror for the OWL will consist of about three thousands of individual hexagonal segments. His lichtsammelnde area will reach six thousand square meters. Penetrates the light of a celestial body by the turbulent atmosphere, creates a distorted picture. A solution to adaptive optics, the VLT already used with success. A few centimeters of small, extremely thin mirror in front of the detector in the beam of the telescope is computer controlled deformed up to five hundred times per second and corrected so the disturbing effect of air turbulence. The image quality is almost as good as with a telescope in space. This one never held for possible distances forward. There will be 100 x more sensitive than the current largest telescopes. Where are the limits? With the 8-meter mirror is so far 133 kilometers Trilliarden see. How far is it with the 100 meters to go!

Reminder: 1 light year is no unit of time, but a unit of measurement - the distance that light in one year zurücklegt = 9.5 trillion km (12 zeros)

17. The space telescopes - HUBBLE / SPITZER / COMPTON / CHANDRA / IXO

Spectacular was the stationing of 4 space telescopes, with which it was possible, without air pollution clear images of the universe. video Deep Field 6:13 Bild Button pfeil1a

1st Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Bild Button pfeil1a Bild Button pfeil1a video 5:55 Spherical Amusements - Stargazer Bild Button pfeil1a

2nd Chandra X Ray Observatory Bild Button pfeil1a video 59:27 High Energy Vision: The Chandra X-ray Observatory Bild Button pfeil1a

3rd Spitzer Space Telescopes Bild Button pfeil1a video 8:50 Bild Button pfeil1a video 3:00  Bild Button pfeil1a

4th Hubble Telescope HST Soace Bild Button pfeil1a videos - chapter 1- 9/2 10:27 Bild Button pfeil1a 5:04 Bild Button pfeil1a 8:34 Bild Button pfeil1a 10:01 Bild Button pfeil1a 7:58 Bild Button pfeil1a 9:51 Bild Button pfeil1a 6:10 Bild Button pfeil1a 6:07 Bild Button pfeil1a 6:49 Bild Button pfeil1a 8:09 Bild Button pfeil1a

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Spitzer Space Teleskope                                              Hubble Soace Telescope HST

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The biggest of these is the Hubble telescope. It has 3 main tasks: to take pictures on 1 visible - 2 ultraviolet - 3 infrared light. In 1990, it is in space at an altitude of 590 km, and orbits the earth in 95 minutes, it has a diameter from 4.30 meters, weighs 11.300kg and is 13.10 meters long. The parabolic mirror is 2.4 meters and can be of 20 Mpc (1 Megaparsec = 3.3 million light years) bill: 20 x 3.3 = 66 million light years x 9.5 trillion km = km = 627,000,000,000,000,000,000 trillion 18 zeros far seen. Bild Button pfeil1a

2021 planned "IXO" better than Hubble  video 5:11 Bild Button pfeil1a IXO Decadal Animation Showing Spacecraft Concept and Mirror Tech

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X-ray telescopes detect the radiation from the hot cloud of explosion Supernovas, and of celestial bodies with strong magnetic fields, such as neutron stars or black holes. After Rosat, Chandra and Newton satellites should have a name Xeus tandem with the task of the modern take on X-ray telescope. Both NASA and the ESA when scientists were busy, the successor to the X-ray space telescopes Chandra and XMM Newton space of the two organizations. In mid-July, it was decided to prefer jointly to build a successor - the International X - ray Observatory, IXO shortly. It replaces the European plans for the space telescope XEUS (X - ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy), which together with the Japanese space agency JAXA should be realized.

18. The  MAGIC telescope - Eye for the Extreme Universe Bild Button pfeil1a

 X-ray telescopes detect the radiation from the hot cloud of explosion Supernovas, and of celestial bodies with strong magnetic fields, such as neutron stars or black holes. After Rosat, Chandra and Newton satellites should have a name Xeus tandem with the task of the modern take on X-ray telescope. Both NASA and the ESA when scientists were busy, the successor to the X-ray space telescopes Chandra and XMM Newton space of the two organizations. In mid-July, it was decided to prefer jointly to build a successor - the International X - ray Observatory, IXO shortly. It replaces the European plans for the space telescope XEUS (X - ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy), which together with the Japanese space agency JAXA should be realized.

Since early 2009, looking at La Palma two telescopes gamma rays and the origin of the universe " Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov " MAGIC

pictures gallery Bild Button pfeil1a "The Magic Telescope: Detector Technology" focuses on the detection of MAGIC technology and technical solutions for our telescopes.

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19.  Telescopes Planck & Herschel 

 Since May 2009 there are two new telescopes in space that are better than Hubble, the Herschel and Planck. You are 1,000,000 kilometers behind the moon station. The project was completed in 1996 founded and created in collaboration of 40 European and 10 American institutions with the ESA. After almost 25 years and cost 1.8 billion euros, it was finally so far. Space telescopes "Hersche l" and "Planck" among the largest research projects in the history of Europe Video 4:43 Bild Button pfeil1  Video 1:18   Bild Button pfeil1

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 The goal of Planck is a mapping of the cosmic background radiation at frequencies from 25 to 1000 GHz. The angular resolution of Planck is about 5 minutes of arc much better than in the comparable previous projects COBE and WMAP. At the same time observations of radiation from the foreground Milky Way and galaxies won. The telescope has a primary mirror of 1.75 m × 1.5 m size and is designed for maximum light scattered constructed. With the two instruments, LFI (Low Frequency) and HFI (high frequency), a wide frequency range covered.

The 1921 kg Planck telescope has a primary mirror of 1.75 m × 1.5 m size. It was published together with the Herschel infrared telescope by an Ariane 5 ECA placed in space. "Planck" is located on a highly orbit from 270 to 1,197,080 km altitude, the 5.99 ° to the equator is tilted.

Planck will be up to the depletion of the coolant about 21 months work. To simplify the suppression of interfering emissions from the sun, earth and moon, the satellite flies in a Lissajous - orbit around the Lagrange - L2 point of the earth - sun - system. He should then temperature fluctuations of the background radiation in the range of one millionth of degrees measured. According to simulations by Gary Shiu and Bret Underwood from the University of Wisconsin - Madison, the measurements of the Planck satellite capable, the string theory to examine

20. radio telescopes picture butt arrow

Just a few years ago appointed the size of the universe with 4,000,000,000 billion light years. Why? Weil methods measuring the then no other values allowed. Those who assumed greater dimensions, were derided and mocked. The light was the problem. In the experiments, it is visible, was found to seemingly insurmountable borders. Only with the development of ever larger, photosensitive glass lenses - telescopes, radio - facsimile and the rapid development of computers - Industry, recognized previously unimaginable magnitude.

LOFAR  the biggest, whole netherland Bild Button pfeil1a                        La Silla Atacama Chile Bild Button pfeil1a          ARECIBO second - Poerto Rico Bild Button pfeil1a

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The biggest Radioteleskop : Atacama Large Millimeter Array   ALMA  plant 2025

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 For another project for the future of the ESO is already preparing the concrete. In the Chilean Atacama desert in 5000 meters altitude, the air is particularly clear and dry. Here ALMA will be built, a telescope, a journey into the early history of the universe allows. ALMA is enormous. Sixty-four movable antennas, each with twelve meters in diameter to catch waves in the millimeter and submillimeter - on the field. These microwaves penetrate gas and dust clouds, which are often murky and the visibility reveal black holes or the creation of stars.

The 600 million - euro observatory is an international project. Aside from the nine member states of the ESO to the U.S. and Japan. It is an international project to build a radio telescope in the Andes of Chile. Each dish antenna with a diameter of 12 m, and mobile. Upon completion, the network varies between 150 m and 14 km wide. Thus, measurements in the range from 30 up to 950 GHz. The ALMA correlator, the information of the antennas erhällt is unbelievable 1.6 x1016 calculations per second. ALMA's location in the Atacama Desert is one of the highest and driest places on earth. This makes the perfect location for astronomical research in the millimeter wavelength range, because of atmospheric moisture absorption. After completing 2011 ALMA is the largest and most powerful telescope in the world.

Currently the estimated size of the universe at 14,000,000,000 billion light years. Just to remember: 1 light year = 9.5 trillion kilometers - 14 years are 133 Trilliarden kilometers - a number with 21 zeros - looks like this: 133,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 Trilliarden kilometers. Already we read relevant literature in conservative estimates of up to 20 billion light years, and none more laughs.

 from  macro to the micro cosmos

21.  The microcosms microscopes picture butt arrow

This is structurally identical to the one universe and only up to a size of some millions of magnification currently visible. Here, too, has been the light, the better exposure of the observed object to the problem. 1595 built the Dutchman Hans Janssen microscope with the first 3 to 9 times magnification

1595  Hans Janssen Bild Button pfeil1a                                        1625 first defined imagery                          bacteria viruses descries

1695 was already a 6o fold magnification possible 400 years ago allowed polished glass lenses, the first look at a hitherto unknown world. By refraction were limited. The biggest enlargement in a light - is microscope at 2,000 times It was not until the early 20th Century of the electron beam, many thousandfold allowed magnifications, we penetrated into other worlds. 1931 was by the Germans Max Knoll and Ernst Ruska the electron microscope developed for the 50 years later! 1986 Ernst Ruska the Nobel Prize. Bild Button pfeil1a Bild Button pfeil1a

1938 get the first pictures of viruses

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22.  Scanning Tunneling microscope picture butt arrow

1981 built the two physicists Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer the first scanning tunneling microscope, based on the quantum phenomenon of the tunnel stream. They received the 1986 Nobel Prize for Physics for this. These researchers but always worked. Bild Button pfeil1a Bild Button pfeil1a

Bild binnig Dr. G. Binnig  Bild rohrer Dr. H. Rohrer

Scanning tunneling microscope                                nanofiber particle tracks

23. Nuclear power microscope picture butt arrow

The Nuclear power microscope in 1985 by Gerd Binning and Christoph Gerber. It works with the scanning of the surface through a tiny probe. The differences between the surface and the probe forces are perceived. The big advantage over the scanning tunneling microscope, in which the tunnel flow between probe and the sample is measured is that not conducting surfaces and soft samples can be examined. It is also possible to measure tiny forces. So MILLION enlargements of several orders of magnitude. It comes into force in previously unimaginable worlds. picture butt arrow picture butt arrow

Atomic force microscope AFM   Bild Button pfeil1a Bild Button pfeil1a                                            top 5 nm graphite - 60,000,000 sample fold increase

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Until the 40s - years of the last century knew from one cell is not much more than their rough outlines.Today we can into the interior of a cell look into the world of molecules. The succeed with the atomic force microscope - AFM It recognizes human chromosomes in their three-dimensional clarity. Every animal and every plant has an individual DNA code. This molecule is remarkable for the boundless diversity of life. But the DNA molecule is still not the smallest component of life and not even the limit of our perception.

In these miniature worlds discovered not only invisible life, it also recognizes how the world is built. It is also a single cell is a complex world. At the same time the human body is far more than the sum of its 100 he trillion cells.

One of the most powerful microscopes is the high - high resolution microscope JEM-ARM 1250 with an acceleration voltage of 1250 kilo electron volts and a point resolution of 0.12 nanometres (millionths of a millimetre). That one atomic dimensions in order to penetrate, already indicates the abbreviation ARM: It stands for Atomic resolution microscope. With its high-voltage generators reached the gigantic plant a height of eight feet (three meters which measure only the microscope pillar), and its weight is 35 tonnes. The whole vibration microscope rests on a 235-ton swing fundament

Computer simulation atoms in Strontiumtitanat ATOMIC RESOLUTION MICROSCOPE JEM - ARM 1250 Bild Button pfeil1a

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24. Superstring screen picture butt arrow

Final Information about SUSY The 15th international Conference on Supersymmetry and the Unification of fundamental Interactions SUSY 2007 - July 26 - August 1, 2007 Karlsruhe, Germany 1006 sites PDF !!! Bild Button pfeil1a

Everything is still much smaller and more complicated. New concept of the construction of the universe: SUPERSTRINGS A century iron stayed the conviction that the atom is the smallest element of matter. But in the 20s - years of the last century discovered that even the atom of even smaller particles. To a tiny atomic-moving electrons. For, that the basic building block of any matter, resulting in nuclear materielos surprising. The world within an atom is currently the limit of our perception. Even ultra-measuring instruments can not fall below this threshold. But even without measuring instruments meets the scientific imagination into the next smaller world.

Matter is therefore almost entirely empty space. What we experience as solid matter, only the power play between different elementary particles. Even the atomic nucleus can be split and if that happens in certain elements, a huge energy released. One example of the relative size of the atom: a 100,000 people fassendes modern stadium is the shell of the atom, the nucleus would be as big as the tip of a needle. Those detained energy, however, is so great that when release = explosion - this stadium pulverize. Only mathematics can become aware of the allerkleinsten blocks of the universe, from the so-called super strings. These are unimaginably tiny energy flows, with the swinging guitar strings compare. By varying the super strings vibrate, they are different particles such as electrons or protons

Now the amazing new theory: The size ratio between the nucleus and Super String represents roughly the ratio of our solar system to a single atom. Something so incomprehensible Small human imagination will probably forever escape. True, we can only take - figuratively speaking - the music of the super strings. Exotic terms such as super strings and extra - dimensions attempt to stem the particle physicists, Vertrauteste all the forces of nature to understand the gravity. It is thanks to Albert Einstein in the cosmic scale perfectly describe tolerate but not with the usual theories of microcosm. A solution the super string theory

They unified description of all the particles and of all natural forces, including gravity. She says a particle requires exactly the characteristics of the Grafitons owns, the exchange-yet-undiscovered particles of gravity. For the super string theory lay in the traditional world of particle physics as elementary dotted adopted its place as the basic building blocks of matter. There is only one basic element - the super-string. How tones by a swinging string, there are the various particles - electrons, quarks, photons, gluons and Co. - vibration through various states of a super elementary strings.

Superstrings can not in our four dimensions - three spatial directions and the time - exist. You need ten or even eleven dimensions. But how can these extra - all dimensions measuring devices available today remain hidden? The only explanation: You must tiny rolled together. The Superstring theory says, that the world is supersymmetric - another reason for the special tension, with the physicists in the discovery of SUSY - Particle wait The search for these super - symetrischen SUSY particles is one of the tasks and experiments on TEVATRON / USA - on LCH - at the CERN and the planned E + E LINEAR COLLIDER.

SUSY particles known spectrum Green = Red = Fields new particle

The computer simulation top right shows how the collapse of a Higgs particle in four muons (yellow lines) on ATLAS - experiment might look like. ATLAS is one of the experiments at the LHC - accelerator, which is currently at the European Particle Physics CERN near Geneva will be built. LHC stands for Large Hadron Collider. Here, from 2007 to high energy protons accelerated and then to the collision. The physicists hope the Higgs - particles to find their existence can be shown why particles have mass.

25. Dr. Higgs picture butt arrow

bild higgs susy Higgs shares   picture butt arrow picture butt arrow

SUPERSYMMETRY - SUSY - the road to universal theory? Symmetries play in modern physics - such as in art - a central role, because in them the basic principles of nature manifest. The largest possible symmetry of the laws of nature is supersymmetry - or shortly SUSY - called. It is a symmetry between matter particles (fermions) and force particles (bosons) and provides an opportunity to our present knowledge about the basic structure of matter (called the standard model) into a larger, more comprehensive theory perspective. In a supersymmetric theory, fermions and bosons are always in pairs. If nature really is supersymmetric, it must therefore be any currently known elementary particles supersymmetric partner particle type. SUSY particles can be spectacular signatures by which cascade decays.

Superstrings - Higgs boson - Susy - Everything particles is much smaller and more complicated. Only mathematics can build a picture of the very smallest components of the universe made by the so-called Super Strings. These are unimaginably tiny energy flows associated with vibrating guitar strings could compare. By the super strings vibrate differently, they form different particles such as electrons or protons

The size ratio between nucleus and superstring corresponds roughly to the ratio of our solar system to a single atom. Something so small is beyond human imagination probably for ever escape. Exotic concepts such as super-strings and extra - dimensions of the rise of experimental particle physicists, the familiarity of all the forces of nature to understand the gravity. It can be a result of Albert Einstein in the cosmic scale perfectly describe tolerate but not with the usual theories of the microcosm. Remedy Super String - Theory

It unifies the description of all particles and all forces of nature, including gravity. She says a particle requires the exact properties of the Grafitons holds, the exchange-yet-undiscovered particle of gravity. For the superstring theory admit the traditional world of particle physics as a spot Elementarteilchen adopted its place as the basic building blocks of matter. There is only one basic element - the super-string. Sounds like a vibrating string, there are the various particles - electrons, quarks, photons, gluons and Co. - by different vibrational states of a super-elementary strings.

Super Strings can not be used in our four dimensions - three spatial directions and time - exist. You need ten or even eleven dimensions. But how can these extra - dimensions of all measuring devices available today remain hidden? The only explanation: You must be bundled tiny.

bild higgs boson(1) bild susyteilchen 1

The right-left image shows the schematic representation of production and decay of SUSY particles at the LHC. Law, the simulation of the corresponding signature for the CMS detector. The search for these new supersymmetric particles is one of the major tasks of the experiments at the Tevatron in the U.S. at the LHC at CERN and at the e + e - Linear Collider - ELC

An electron - Positron - accelerator as the International Linear Collider ILC could be super - particles produce balanced and accurate analysis and thus the way forward to this all-embracing theory, all the fundamental forces and particles together. It is a huge linear accelerators, in which electrons and their anti-particle, the positron, with energies of 500 to about 1000 billion electron volts collide.

26. Dark mater

The standard model says that there is matter particles, like electrons and quarks that make up atomic nuclei, atoms, molecules, and so-called force particles, which ensure that the matter is not by itself Eigenernergie destroyed. In their behavior, these two very different types of particles. The supersymmetry, there are all matter particles supersymmetric partners, which include force particles behave, and vice versa. Elementary particles behave as they turned to themselves Elementarteilchen In the name of this self - spin rotation. The spin is subject to its own rules - those of quantum theory. Then come many sizes only in certain values, in quantum before

bild susy_standardmodell standard model

Spin electrons are only two spin settings. Either upwards or downwards. The particles have different Spinwerte, which is a measure of the rotational speed. Matter particles such as electrons and quarks have Spinwert 1 / 2 and two possible values for the Spinachse. The particle interaction, the exchange on their work forces, have the Spinwert 1and three possible values

Supersymmetry is a symmetry that closely with the spin of the particles are linked. If our universe is supersymmetric, then there is on each of the known particles a supersymmetric partner. So there would be, for example, to the spin 1 / 2 supersymmetric particles and spin 0 particles with spin 1 supersymmetric particles reversed Spin1 / 2 partners. This would make the world of matter particles with the force of the associated particles. The number of different particles would thus be doubled. Supersymmetric partners of the matter particles get an "s" prefix - as in Selektron or Squark. The supersymmetric versions of the interaction of particles receive a "ino" to the end: Photino, Gluino etc. Also the Higgs particle is the Higgsino in a supersymmetric variant. The strength of a force that originates from a particle, it changes with the distance that you have on the particles: It is the forces are becoming increasingly similar, as this distance is tiny. Physicists have even calculated that the strengths at intervals of not yet investigated tininess (10-31m) almost meet. This applies as compelling evidence that there is a single elementary power. With supersymmetry make it much more accurately.

bild susy_spineinstellunngen susy spin   bild susy_laufendekonstanten contant

By the theory of supersymmetry, the different forces in the universe bessererklären wide. Then there is an elementary power briefly after the Big Bang when the universe just a trillionth trillionth trillionth of thousandths of seconds old and with ten thousand trillion trillion degrees was still incredibly hot. With time, the universe cooled and consist of an elementary power the various manifestations of the forces known to us today have arisen. A doubling of the particles would explain much.

Supersymmetry is speculation. But so does current research: Man tries to give answers, their accuracy is still not totally convinced. Just like at the beginning of quantum theory, which bases on the entire computer industry is based

bild beck teilchenphysik Dr. Beck  bild zwicky Dr. Zwicky picture butt arrow

Basic Input from Quantum Field Theory   picture butt arrow  higgs boson  picture butt arrow  SuperSymmetry II picture butt arrow

Dark mater You must dark matter everywhere, but we can not see it. No one could yet prove their existence directly, but without them, so are the physicists agree, would have to fall apart entire galaxies: dark matter. "The U.S. active in the Swiss astrophysicist Fritz Zwicky postulated already in 1933, that in addition to the matter known to us something in the room must be available," such as the Berne particle physicist Hans Peter Beck says, "until today remains a direct proof of this new form for us of matter, however,

Dark matter is not directly observable, since it seems to be little visible light or radiation, or at least reflects provenance. This makes them invisible, incomprehensible, but according to the laws of gravity is essential for the stability of galaxies in the universe. Hans Peter Beck explains why: The stars in a galaxy revolve around their galactic center, which is "most likely" a black hole - just as the earth revolves around the sun. Thus the heavenly bodies - and galaxies - are in equilibrium, so neither the center nor gone to this move, they need a certain rotation speed.

"Observations of the rotational velocities of stars in galaxies have finally revealed the stars simply too fast for its center and then rotate the galaxy actually may not be stable - it is little known matter exists," said Beck. "There must be something Additional enter. "The standard model of cosmology assumes that the" ordinary "matter, suns and planets in other words, only four percent of the dark matter and 23 percent total. The stately remainder - 73 percent - are dark energy," yet the major question mark for science represents, "said Beck.

In search of the properties of dark matter, the researchers have in recent years in order hypothesis hypothesis - and are amazing to rise. Beck: "The dark matter is not made of protons and neutrons, which together with electrons, the atoms of the ordinary" matter. We know that <dark> neutral particles must be extremely weak and not more than familiar with the matter we interact. " If they are loaded or would interact with other particles, according to Beck had long traces found. "They manifest themselves only through its gravitational interactions, the researcher summarizes the recent findings of astrophysicists and particle physicists together. "The unknown particle must be in large numbers as constant companions to galaxies, stars, planets and moons occur.

bild darc materie bild dunkle materie

This graph illustrates the percentages of total available energy in the universe and matter. The matter we are familiar contributes only about 5% at. CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) stands for cosmic microwave radiation. With "baryons" says one of the normal matter.

 You must dark matter everywhere, but we can not see it. No one could yet prove their existence directly, but without them, so are the physicists agree, would have to fall apart entire galaxies: dark matter. "The U.S. active in the Swiss astrophysicist Fritz Zwicky postulated already in 1933, that in addition to the matter known to us something in the room must be available," such as the Berne particle physicist Hans Peter Beck says, "until today remains a direct proof of this new form for us of matter, however,

Intuitive Models

What, for example, there is the mysterious dark matter that dominates the universe? Why outweighs the amount of matter in the universe to those of anti-matter? Are there more fundamental building blocks of matter known as the? What ever is mass?

The last of these questions is currently being happy with the existence of a so-called "Higgs field" and its "Higgs particle" in context. The "Higgs" is thought of as an exchange particle to the Higgs force between elementary particles transfers. According to this notion would be the entire space of a field meets, the elementary particles their masses are.

The standard model of particle physics for over 30 years as a theory to study the matter. It assigns the species diversity of the particles in a clear schedule and describes the structure and behavior of almost all known forms of matter with great precision. Our visible matter, for example, can be so only three particles derived: the electron and the up-and down-quark. The visible world is made up of atoms, and these consist of electrons, protons and neutrons, which in turn, from the quarks «Up» and «Down» composed.

Electron, up-and down-quark is called elementary particles, since they according to the present knowledge, not even smaller structures. The standard model shows a total of twelve such basic building blocks of matter on. In addition, so-called exchange particles, which in the modern physics describes the forces that can act between particles. Within protons and neutrons around gluons mediate the cohesion of the three quarks. The mutual attraction of protons and electrons within an atom is not based on an eerie phenomenon transmitted force, but on the exchange of photons, particles of electromagnetic radiation. It has needed for decades, until the standard model was created. An interplay between theory and experiment rendered great services for which some physicists won the Nobel Prize has been rewarded.

27. CERN - LCH - ILC

The International Linear Collider ILC - an electron - positron - Accelerator - could be super - symmetrical particles produce and analyze. This would make it all-encompassing explanations of this theory to deliver what the fundamental forces and particles together. It is a linear accelerator in which electrons and their antiparticles, the positrons, with energies of 500 to about 1000 billion electronvolts collide. The International Linear Collider ILC is unique opportunities, key scientific questions of the 21st Century to the nature of matter, energy, space and time as well as to dark matter, dark energy and the existence of extra - dimensions to be examined.

bild LHC Cern bild lhc LHC

The International Linear Collider ILC is unique opportunities, central scientific issues of the 21st Century to the nature of matter, energy, space and time as well as dark matter, dark energy and the existence of extra - dimensions.

bild ILC1 Bild teleskop ilc detector ILC - Dedector

Only geniuses come to new ideas that are contrary to the previous question. With all these technological marvels has not managed to discover the secrets to the building of the universe to solve. Unimaginable magnitude in the macro - and micro-range order to prevent a nuclear das visible, one needs a resolution of at least 100 nm 1 nm = 1 billionth of a meter. Modern scanning electron microscopes create a resolution of 0.2 nm Smaller is only indirectly visible. Theories have her. The only valid until the next comes. Theories of physics are always the first theory, until it is through the practice can be demonstrated.

Cern Dedector Opal                                 Cern collider

Bild cern dedektor opal bild cern collider bild mikrokope LCH String2  LCH String 2

In LEP - accelerator, up to the year 2000 was in operation, the electrons and positrons, ie elementary particles, accelerated in opposite directions and at certain points for collision brought. At these points, several detectors have been installed around the collision products to the human eye are invisible, visible. One of these was the OPAL detectors - experiment. Two of the four detectors of the electron - positron - collider LEP at CERN have provided evidence that long sought-particles, the matter may be its mass

bild LEP 1 bild LEP 2 LEP

In all these wonders of technical works is not yet succeeded, the secrets to the structure of the universe to solve. Unimaginable magnitude in the macro - and prevent that area of micro - Can you see atoms or visible? NO! To an atom to make, you need a resolution of at least 100 nm 1 nm = 1 billionth of a meter. Today's scanning electron microscopes create only a resolution of 0.2 nm therefore help only theories. The apply but only until the next. Theorems of physics are always an unproved theory, until it through the practice can be proved. Only geniuses come to new ideas that are contrary to the known and each must be genius since it was made for thousands of years as it has described Schopenhauer.

                                   From the universe to its smallest components

28. Dr. Rolf L. Moessbauer - Nobelprize physics 1961 picture butt arrow

 Prof. Dr. Rolf L. Moessbauer picture butt arrow- 11 x Doctor honour

Physics: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow    by Rudof Moessbauer Physics attempts to reduce the course of natural events to comprehensive principles - the laws of nature. These principles are universally valid, nothing can escape them. Whereas everything that is material in the world is continually subjected to change, the laws of nature are timeless. At any time and in any place we can trust in them and build on them. Physics has its roots in the ancient world. However, it was not until the 17th century that the methodology of modern physics was founded by Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton detaching individual occurrences from their contexts, examining them quantitatively with the help of experiments, and ultimately mathematically formulating fundamental physical principles. At the end of the 19th century physicists began to shed light upon the electronic structure of matter. In 1897 Joseph Thomson discovered the electron, at present the first indivisible particle. At the beginning of the 20th century Albert Einstein revolutionized our notion of space and time with his theory of relativity. Together with Max Planck he discovered photons as elementary particles of light.

With the development of their quantum theory Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger, Paul Dirac and Wolfgang Pauli solved the problem of wave-particle dualism. These discoveries mark the beginning of modern physics in the 20th century. Since then physicists have been discovering new and exciting phenomena and laws of nature. The objects of research in the field of physics are often far removed from anything that we are actually able to experience. However, sooner or later the discoveries made have a determining influence on our lives. This is what makes physics the most fundamental of all the natural sciences. It is a formative part of our culture. Physics spans a wide range of themes: from the dimensions of the cosmos to the elementary particles of the core of an atom.

Many of the discoveries made nowadays are shaped by methods used in physics. Examples of this are the decoding of deoxyribonucleic acid, (DNA), and the determination of the sequence of the human genome. Physical research is an integral part of natural and engineering science. It forms the basis of modern technology. One example of this is the semiconductor transistor. Discovered 50 years ago, it has fundamentally altered electronic engineering. This advancement, and the development of other semiconductor component parts and their miniaturization in large-scale integrated electronic circuits, has made it possible to develop modern computer and communication technologies. At the beginning of the 21st century physicists are still researching into fundamental questions of physics, chemistry, technology and, increasingly, biology. The future potential for exciting research in the field of physics is enormous. Nowadays physicists are able to produce macroscopically coherent matter waves. These consist of a large number of atoms which possess wave properties. Research into these coherent matter waves and their interaction with other matter and with light promises to be fascinating. Research into the smallest of structures, with diameters of a couple of nanometers and consisting of only atoms or molecules, is likely to lead to numerous new technical applications in the field of nanotechnology.

The mathematical methodology used in physics will remain indispensable for the analysis of complex, dynamic processes and structural formation processes. In the field of high temperature superconduction one of the objectives of current research work is to reduce the losses that occur in the supply of electric power.Research into controlled nuclear fusion is one of physics' most ambitious projects for the future. The investigation of the cosmos, for example with X-ray telescopes, will improve our knowledge of the origin, the structure and the dynamics of the cosmos, as will the analysis of invisible neutrino currents by means of sophisticated underground detectors. Experiments and theoretical developments will lead to a new understanding of the elementary components of the universe and to a comprehensive description of the fundamental forces of nature. In the future physicists will be examining questions of a physical nature more closely in the field of other natural sciences, for example biophysical primary processes. Physics was, is, and will remain one of the fundamental natural sciences, an integral part of our culture and the foundation of our technology.” Rudolf Mößbauer - Munich 2002 Bild Button pfeil1a

29. The history of homeopathy picture butt arrow

Bild hippokrates bunt Hippokrates bild Hahnemann4 Dr. Hahnemann Bild Buch Hahnemann organon en Bild Button pfeil1a online    bild paracelsus picture butt arrow Bild Button pfeil1a Bild Button pfeil1a Paracelsus

In the 18th Century, Dr. Hahnemann an entirely new medical principle: "The law Homeopathy" - The same should be cured by similar - similia similibus curentur. Hahnemann quote: "You ahme the nature of what is sometimes a chronic illness by another incoming heals, and in turn to one disease curative medicine, which another artificial disease as similar as possible to create a position, and those will be cured. "

What was completely new to homeopathy?  1. Hahnemann was the first person with extreme dilutions of drugs worked.  2. 50 years before the general academic research began. He was the first to systematically scientifically researched, experimented, documented, and through countless experiments on healthy and sick, the new treatment proved. Why Hahnemann was looking for a new therapy? The causes were discontent and frustration over the failure of medical therapy practiced at that time. They were powerless against the terrible disease in Europe, plague, dysentery, cholera, typhus and syphilis. Millions of people lost their lives. Doctors were powerless. All known therapies failed. Hahnemann quote: "Because everything dies, which will die without having to Galen, Boerhaave or Brown to return, and just what the death was not ripe, comes from it. Because, you sick attendants and doctors, pharmacists and Wundärzte to the grave."

30. Dr. Hahnemann - a genius

He was a scientist, practicing physician and chemist. He became famous in various medical treatments, which he introduced. He studied medicine and chemistry was carried out at the Universities of Leipzig, Vienna and Erlangen and ended it 1777, with 21 years of age. 1779 - he got 24 years - in Erlangen for his MD degree with the thesis about the "causes and treatment of convulsive states." He mastered 9 languages - Greek, Latin, English, French, Italian, Hebrew, Arabic and various dialects. He translated scientific papers and dissertations from these languages. Thus he gained a deep insight into the medical, pharmacological and chemical knowledge of these cultures. That was the basis for new therapies - homeopathy.

The decisive impetus for a "new treatment" came in his 1790 translation of the book " Materia Medika " of the Scottish professor of medicine and chemistry, Dr. William Cullen 1710 to 1790. The special topic: "China bark as a treatment of malaria." Hahnemann began to experiment bark China, by gradually diluted. Surprising was for him that dilutions until the success and brought even more surprisingly that the stronger the dilution, the stronger the effect. It was the beginning of many years, thousands of experiments. Here, he used plants, minerals and organic parts, and diluted with water and alcohol. The idea was to create the effect / agents of the material used to acting as a carrier substances - water and alcohol from it. There was nothing comparable in the history of medicine. All the recipes had to be re-invented "and" found "to be.

Physician and chemist, 1779 - with 24 years - "Hepar sulfuris Hahnemannii" treatment of syphilis. 1782 Mercury solubilis Hahnemannii in acute syphilis. 1784 " Guidance for the treatment of old injuries and ulcers lazy" - fistulas, Knochenfäule, wind Dorn, cancer, tuberculosis. 1788 bile and gallstones - Argentum - nitricum dilution of 1:500 for preservation of meat. 1:1000 gurgling water in diphtheria. 1789 differs Hahnemann was the first of the syphilis gonorrhea.

The microbiology was still unknown. Hahnemann published the "instruction for Wundärzte on the Venusian diseases, along with a new mercury preparations. Hahnemann get permanent cures for syphilis by an artificially produced "Merkurialfieber". The 1789 publication " as a remedy Thuja 'in acute gonorrhea - study of the astringent Prinzipium in plants." 1790 "China barks Selbstversuch, 1796, is regarded as the birth year of homeopathy. In addition to various books published Hahnemann 1833, during the cholera epidemic in Europe, four papers on the treatment of epidemics. He sat camphor successful, because believing that the cause of epidemic diseases in mass "invisibly small creatures" are needed. It was Hahnemann Luis Pasteur and Robert Koch 25 years ahead. He succeeded in the mass mortality of cholera to a minimum. 1843 Dr. Hahnemann died at 89 years in

The three books of the over 5,000 - year - old Indian medicine - Ayurveda - already describe the similarity principle

It may be inferred:

1st   Dr. Hahnemann, the similarity - only revived principle.

2nd   He documented and proved this through experiments, which

3rd   the specific effects could be derived systematically.

Homeopathy was not invented, it has always been a law of nature. Below some criteria from the era of Dr. Hahnemann. Not many know that this story from the beginning the treatment of humans and horses narrates.

In the 18th and 19 Century was the importance of the horse quite different than today. The horse was a decisive war.

Therefore it is not mean that immediately after the discovery of the effects of homeopathy, they have their way into the military - veterinary - Treatment of Prussian - Austria - Hungarian army held. There is almost criminal histories, full of intrigue and slander, for example as the incumbent military - wanted to prevent doctors and could even partially successful, as in the case of veterinarian Dr. T. Traeger.

Early homeopathy 18 Century picture butt arrow

Bild Dr. Hartmann Dr. Hartmann Bild boenninghausen Dr. Franz von Boenninghausen

Hi was one of the first leaders in the early hours of modern Homoeopathie and started from 1830 with this therapy in his practice. The reason: he was on his tuberculosis by Dr. August Weihe 1779 - 1864, the first in Westphalia active Homoeopathie - doctor healed. He published his famous 1846 book, which until the turn of the century as a standard factory was: picture butt arrow picture butt arrow picture butt arrow  A full summary of this era can be found in the thesis of Dr. Jutta Backert-Isert - in german - picture butt arrow

31. Manufacture of homeopathic medicines  Videos Bild Button pfeil1a Bild Button pfeil1a

There are 3,000 homeopathic medicines. 300 shall mainly use. Precursors for homeopathic medicines are plants, animals, minerals, metals and so-called Nosoden, which are substances made of organic components of human - animals - insects. The starting material for the manufacture of a homeopathic medicinal products according to strict rules with water or diluted alcohol. Homeopathy speaks of exponentiation, and assumes that this effect is strengthened. Carries a homeopathic medicinal products, for example, the C200 designation, it was the parent (mother tincture) 200 times at a ratio of 1: 99 diluted. The mother tincture is one drop in 99 drops of solvent. Each dilution is then shaken 100 times before they will be further diluted. Solid precursors with milk / sugar verrieben. The dilution of D means that the ratio 1: 9 diluted been. LM stands for a dilution ratio of 1:50000. D16 means that 16 times in the ratio 1: 9 diluted. From the dilutions of D24 and C12 molecule is no longer the main substance in the actual product available, but homeopaths apply the highest dilutions (high potency) than the deepest and most effective medicines to! What happens when the dilution? Does information on water? 

32. Korsakoff Manufacture Bild Button pfeil1a Video Bild Button pfeil1a

bild korsakoff Korsakoff in Russia was at the time of Hahnemann medical care in the countryside are often taken over by large landowners, farmers and their serfs even treated. One of these was Count Nicolajewitsch Simeon v. K orsakoff (1788-1853), who lived near Moscow and for homeopathy interested. Korsakoff potentiation experimented with various methods to materialaufwendige Centesimal potentiation Hahnemann easier. 1831 he developed the method of Einglas potency

33. Science and Homeopathy - evidence - Dissertations

What is it with scientific evidence of modern times, on the effectiveness of homeopathy? Collection of dissertations and research on homeopathy.







other very informative pages: picture butt arrow

34. Books on homeopathy: collection of book recommendations

   Kent  Bild cooper Cooper Bild clarke Clarke Bild wheeler Wheeler

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